An Analysis of Holding Cost Impact on Housing Affordability in Relation to Midsized Greenfield Residential Property Developments in South East Queensland

TitleAn Analysis of Holding Cost Impact on Housing Affordability in Relation to Midsized Greenfield Residential Property Developments in South East Queensland
Publication TypeThesis
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsGarner, G. Owen
Academic DepartmentSchool of Urban Development, Faculty of Built Environment & Engineering
DegreePhD Doctor of Philosophy
Number of Pages457
UniversityQueensland University of Technology,
CityBrisbane, Australia
Keywordsdevelopment assessment, discount rate, EOQ model, finance holding costs, greenfield, holding costs, housing, housing affordability, inflation, infrastructure contributions, interest rates, inventory, investment, land banking, net present value, opportunity cost, planning, planning requirements, property development, regulatory assessment, residential development

The position of housing demand and supply is not consistent. The Australian situation counters the experience demonstrated in many other parts of the world in the aftermath of the Global Financial Crisis, with residential housing prices proving particularly resilient. A seemingly inexorable housing demand remains a critical issue affecting the socio-economic landscape. Underpinned by high levels of population growth fuelled by immigration, and further buoyed by sustained historically low interest rates, increasing income levels, and increased government assistance for first home buyers, this strong housing demand level ensures problems related to housing affordability continue almost unabated. A significant, but less visible factor impacting housing affordability relates to holding costs. Although only one contributor in the housing affordability matrix, the nature and extent of holding cost impact requires elucidation: for example, the computation and methodology behind the calculation of holding costs varies widely - and in some instances completely ignored. In addition, ambiguity exists in terms of the inclusion of various elements that comprise holding costs, thereby affecting the assessment of their relative contribution. Such anomalies may be explained by considering that assessment is conducted over time in an ever-changing environment. A strong relationship with opportunity cost - in turn dependant inter alia upon prevailing inflation and / or interest rates - adds further complexity. By extending research in the general area of housing affordability, this thesis seeks to provide a detailed investigation of those elements related to holding costs specifically in the context of midsized (i.e. between 15-200 lots) greenfield residential property developments in South East Queensland. With the dimensions of holding costs and their influence over housing affordability determined, the null hypothesis H0 that holding costs are not passed on can be addressed. Arriving at these conclusions involves the development of robust economic and econometric models which seek to clarify the componentry impacts of holding cost elements. An explanatory sequential design research methodology has been adopted, whereby the compilation and analysis of quantitative data and the development of an economic model is informed by the subsequent collection and analysis of primarily qualitative data derived from surveying development related organisations. Ultimately, there are significant policy implications in relation to the framework used in Australian jurisdictions that promote, retain, or otherwise maximise, the opportunities for affordable housing.

Refereed DesignationRefereed